Fluoride is a naturally occurring element which helps to harden tooth enamel and make it more resistant to acid exposure. It helps protect against cavities (caries) and can reduce tooth sensitivity. Depending on the patient's individual risk for cavities, and the developmental status of teeth, we generally recommended topical fluoride application (i.e. applied to the surface of the teeth) twice a year for children through their adolescent years to help prevent cavities. We also recommend and perform topical fluoride supplementation in patients who suffer from chronic dry mouth (xerostomia), generalized gingival recession, and sensitive teeth because this is believed to be the most effective at reducing cavities.